An average for the full 10-year period is also given in All Years. (2018). The outcomes of analysis of citations to and from highly cited papers broadly concur. Peroni, S., Ciancarini, P., Gangemi, A., Nuzzolese, A. G., Poggi, F., & Presutti V. (2019). https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2020-DON229, https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-00253-8, https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-1911-march-2020, https://www.webofscience.com/wos/woscc/basic-search, https://jcr.clarivate.com/jcr/home?Init=Yes&SrcApp=IC2LS, Corrections, Expressions of Concern, and Retractions. The linear plot is of benefit because it allows ready interpretation and reference back to the original data values. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-019-03243-4. This would mean that the article is being cited an average of 50% more times per year than expected for articles within its co-citation network published in the same year. Small (2004) offered a synthesis of motives for citation, in which citations serve a dual function as vehicles of peer recognition and constructed symbols for specific original achievements. In practice, self-citation seems rarely to be an activity located at one pole or the otherdisinterestedness (Mertonian) or interestedness (social constructivist)but generally to occupy some middle ground along a spectrum of motivations and meanings. Scientometrics,113(2), 11991207. In 2017 and 2018, 20.8% of PLOS publications and 12.2% of BMC publications provided DAS containing a link to data in a repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2018.07.009.  Counting the number of citations per paper is also employed to identify the authors of citation classics. It is measured each year by the Web of Science Group and reported in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Fields are ranked by median self-referencing, Key parameters for analysing the distributions of the frequency of self-citations among Highly Cited Researchers (20082018) by Essential Science Indicator fields. Scientometrics,111(3), 18011812. Trends in Ecology & Evolution,23(5), 250252. An RCR of 1 is considered average, while an RCR greater than 1 is above average. Viiu, G. A. Further, 91% of the papers under the Article category in the database were classified as original works by the journals themselves. The average citation per article for these publications was 8.1. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.21042. We considered a variety of thresholds, but as visual guidelines we found that the accepted box-plot standard of 1.5 times the inter-quartile range worked well. Google Scholar allows for searching of a particular work or author and retrieves results from a variety of sources such as peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, meeting abstracts, web sites, gray literature, PPTs and other formats. Self-citations: The stepchildren of scientometrics? Sage Open, 9(1), article number 2158244019829575. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019829575. Journals, especially to game the impact factor (Rousseau 1999; Frandsen 2007; Yu and Wang 2007; Campanario 2011; Wilhite and Fong 2012; Yu et al. Clinical medicine is the largest field (448 Highly Cited Researchers). volume123,pages 11191147 (2020)Cite this article. Linear plots by Essential Science Indicators field of the pattern of self-referencing to earlier papers by Highly Cited Researchers identified by analysing Web of Science data for 20082018 and to (self-citing from later publications) highly cited papers on which a researcher is also an author or co-author. 2010). When negative binomial regression is used to minimize the influence of other variables such as article number variation and field of research, Covid-19 papers have still experienced more than 80% increase in citations relative to non-Covid-19 papers. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0271071, Editor: Ayman Elbehiry, Qassim University, College of Public Health and Informatics, SAUDI ARABIA, Received: February 26, 2022; Accepted: June 22, 2022; Published: July 27, 2022. (2018). Ferrara, E., & Romero, A. E. (2013). A higher rate of self-citation is expected for co-author than for strict author self-citation, and, in general, a rising rate of co-author self-citation is observed with the growth in average number of authors per paper over time (van Raan 1998; Aksnes 2003; Glnzel and Thijs 2004b). American Documentation,14(3), 195201. ESI provides Field Baseline tables based on specific research fields for citation analysis: Citation Rates and Percentiles. A negative binomial regression model was used to assess for potential confounding variables (Table 3).  The latter model is even used as a predictive tool for determining the citations that might be obtained at any time of the lifetime of a corpus of publications. Fong, E. A. Characteristics revealed by an analysis of researcher portfolios at the level of the Essential Science Indicators fields include: A consistent central or normal range of average self-citation for researchers in every discipline-based category. Very importantly, however, the data here and in the Appendix show that in some fields, within the central normal range and below the statistical threshold, there can be a well-populated and unproblematic upper decile and even upper percentile. Robert J. McDonald, Frontiers ranked 3rd most-cited with an average of 4.8 citations per article. It should be obvious that citations (to older papers) come from references (in newer papers) and that the totals of references and cites are the same, but it is less obvious that the distributions differ. This certainly cautions against any simple test of inappropriate behaviour and confirms the need for informed scrutiny and interpretation. Studies originating in North America, those with six or more authors, sample sizes > 100, and those that are retrospective or prospective case series are independent predictors of greater citation rates at 6 years in orthopedic spine-specific medical literature. II. Cities With the Highest Price-to-Rent Ratios: Where Renting Is More Favorable Than Buying. The linear analysis provides an accessible dataset for initial interpretation of citation rates. The data set, which lists around 100,000 researchers, shows that at least 250 scientists have amassed more than 50% of their citations from themselves or their co-authors, while the median. This means that other publications such as letters, editorials, perspectives, and opinions were not included in our search criteria which leaves a large number of publications out of the study. Another potential reason for the spike in Covid-19 citations is the exhibited capacity of the virus to mutate rapidly. Many have observed that the term self-citation is frequently used to mean two different forms or modes of self-mention: self-referencing (cited reference to self within a list in ones own publication); and self-citing (citations from ones own work among all citations to ones publications). A baseline of 15 Covid-19 articles was set as a requirement for a journal to be included. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-020-03417-5, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-020-03417-5. We thank our ISI colleagues, particularly Ross Potter, Gordon Rogers and Josh Schnell, for their advice and suggestions during the development of this work. The levels we have selected for listing by field and year are 0.01%, 0.1%, 1.0%, and 10%. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2018.10.025. The 10-year averages are calculated from citations from articles published during the same 10-year period. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.21332. Journal of the American Society for Information Science,37(1), 3436. 2006). Article citations also increased by 46%, totalling 3 million citations. Like all impact metrics, vulnerable to gamification (e.g.. EPL, 78(3), article number 30002. https://doi.org/10.1209/0295-5075/78/30002. Brooks, T. A. A series of disconnected points, rather more extended than in other fields, lies above this crossing the low and then the high indicative outlier threshold. Journals with a lower impact (e.g. Garfield, E., & Sher, I. H. (1963). is reasonable to infer that these rates are higher than those for all papers in Assessing insularity in global science. This table shows some sample publications A-D that are in different subjects, and have different document types. To address this gap in the literature we use WOS to examine citation rates for Covid-19-related articles published between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2021 across 24 major scientific journals. We then quantify the number of citations these papers have received and compare rates to non-Covid-19 papers in the same journals over the same timeframe. The dataset used for this analysis was the Web of Science list of Highly Cited Researchers for 2019. Journal of Legal and Political Sociology, 1:115126 (Reprinted in: Merton, R. K. (1973). Changing patterns of self-citation: Cumulative inquiry or self-promotion? 2018; Zhao and Strotmann 2018; Ioannidis et al. Journal of Academic Ethics,6(1), 6778. Oakland, CA. The citation rate for all years is the total number of citations received by all papers in all fields published during the 10-year period divided by the total number of papers. Exceptional medians were Space Science (SPA, 14.1%) and Mathematics (MAT, 15.6%). Are citations indicative or predictive of translational or clinical applications? Open access meets discoverability: Citations to articles posted to Academia. SCOPUS provides evidence of collaboration with other scientists and organizations, publication productivity, cited-by works, the h-index and also includes tools for creating citation graphs and Wordle maps. Publications, 8(2), 17. an assay to measure the concentration of proteins, "Citation Indexes for Science: A New Dimension in Documentation through Association of Ideas", "Citation Frequency as a Measure of Research Activity and Performance", "Can Researchers Bank on Citation Analysis? Ghiasi, G., Larivire, V., & Sugimoto, C. R. (2016). The influence of international collaboration on the impact of research results: Some simple mathematical considerations concerning the role of self-citations. Scopus. The gender gap in pay has remained relatively stable in the United States over the past 20 years or so. Heneberg, P. (2016). 2). Green and gold open access citation and interdisciplinary advantage: A bibliometric study of two science journals. Does co-authorship inflate the share of self-citations? Tagliacozzo, R. (1977). 5 . PLoS ONE 17(7): Baselines and subject schemas create ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Citation_impact&oldid=1151587142, This page was last edited on 24 April 2023, at 23:58. https://doi.org/10.22452/mjlis.vol22no1.1. The citation rate in any single year can serve as a baseline to assess the Waltman, L. (2016). Journal of Higher Education,81(3), 366393. dividing the total number of citations received by all papers in the group Example: An article published in October 2017 has been cited 8 times in 2017, 5 times in 2018, 5 times in 2019, 5 times in 2020, and 15 times in 2021. Humility, noted Merton, serves to reduce the misbehavior of scientists below the rate that would occur if importance were assigned only to originality and the establishing of priority (Merton 1957). relatively few highly cited papers. (1985). 2019). Data are plotted both as a linear and as a log-normal plot. reported that on average, delayed OAJs had citation rates twice as high as TAJs, and 3 times as high as immediate OAJs . table displays aggregate data for each of the 22 ESI research fields. Citation frequency is highly skewed, with many infrequently cited papers and The following excerpt from a Citation Rates table reveals that on https://doi.org/10.7554/elife.45374. https://doi.org/10.1177/030631277700700207. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-017-2490-z. Scientometrics,15(56), 437447. 6, 7, 8, 9) includes all graphs for each field, to illustrate the balance of consistency and variability in self-referencing and self-citing behaviour.
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